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What Are Your Thoughts?

Discussion in 'Parents of Children with Type 1' started by sooz, Nov 10, 2013.

  1. sooz

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    What are your thoughts on this theory?
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15893109/

    The sweet thing about Type 1 diabetes: a cryoprotective evolutionary adaptation.

    AuthorsMoalem S, et al. Show all Journal
    Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(1):8-16.

    Affiliation
    Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1134, New York, NY 10029, USA. sharon.moalem@mssm.edu

    Abstract
    The reasons for the uneven worldwide distribution of Type 1 diabetes mellitus have yet to be fully explained. Epidemiological studies have shown a higher prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in northern Europe, particularly in Scandinavian countries, and Sardinia. Recent animal research has uncovered the importance of the generation of elevated levels of glucose, glycerol and other sugar derivatives as a physiological means for cold adaptation. High concentrations of these substances depress the freezing point of body fluids and prevent the formation of ice crystals in cells through supercooling, thus acting as a cryoprotectant or antifreeze for vital organs as well as in their muscle tissue. In this paper, we hypothesize that factors predisposing to elevated levels of glucose, glycerol and other sugar derivatives may have been selected for, in part, as adaptive measures in exceedingly cold climates. This cryoprotective adaptation would have protected ancestral northern Europeans from the effects of suddenly increasingly colder climates, such as those believed to have arisen around 14,000 years ago and culminating in the Younger Dryas. When life expectancy was short, factors predisposing to Type 1 diabetes provided a survival advantage. However, deleterious consequences of this condition have become significant only in more modern times, as life expectancy has increased, thus outweighing their protective value. Examples of evolutionary adaptations conferring selection advantages against human pathogens that result in deleterious effects have been previously reported as epidemic pathogenic selection (EPS). Such proposed examples include the cystic fibrosis mutations in the CFTR gene bestowing resistance to Salmonella typhi and hemochromatosis mutations conferring protection against iron-seeking intracellular pathogens. This paper is one of the first accounts of a metabolic disorder providing a selection advantage not against a pathogenic stressor alone, but rather against a climatic change. We thus believe that the concept of EPS should now include environmental factors that may be nonorganismal in nature. In so doing we propose that factors resulting in Type 1 diabetes be considered a result of environmental pathogenic selection (EnPS).
     
  2. nebby3

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    Interesting. I know my type 1 is always warmer than my other kids. But T1 also strikes people so early (usually before age 35) that I can't see how it get perpetuated. It's Finland where they have really high rates, right?
     
  3. Christopher

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    It sounds stupid.
     
  4. sooz

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    Could you elaborate? Why do you think it sounds stupid?
     
  5. mmgirls

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    It is just a new line of research, looking at whether elevated glucose is actually an eviromental adaptation specific to climate changes that could have occured 14 thousand years ago?

    The gist of it I think is more so of just expanding epidemic pathogenic selection (EPS) research scope. But I am not sure whenther that type of reasearch will ever make a difference to out T1D community.
     
  6. sooz

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    What I am curious about are your thoughts regarding the theory. What do you think of this theory?
     
  7. mmgirls

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    Well I can understand on a basic level what they are saying, the elevated BG changes the temperature at which a person would I guess be damaged from the cold of a climate, the temperature at which a cell would no longer be able to function correctly.

    The human body is amaizing but it is reactive, If it did adapt 14k years ago in responce to climate changes it did not know that the great majority of humans would be comfortably living within cold climates due to advances in electricity, textiles, automobiles, homes and a whole range of other sorts of creature comforts.

    But there are still cultures of people that do live in these extremes climates and this may be a reason that thay are able to do so.
     
  8. Sarah Maddie's Mom

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    "When life expectancy was short, factors predisposing to Type 1 diabetes provided a survival advantage. However, deleterious consequences of this condition have become significant only in more modern times, as life expectancy has increased, thus outweighing their protective value."

    Cause, sure, my 4 year old might have made it to 5 giving her ample opportunity to reproduce :rolleyes:
     
  9. MomofSweetOne

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    ^^^LOL. Agreed. I hope JDRF didn't waste money on this research.
     
  10. sooz

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    Thank you for responding. The conclusions in this theory made no sense to me and I wanted to know what people here thought of it. Since insulin was only discovered in 1920, and people with type 1 don't live long without it, and type 1 typically presents before reproductive age, I could not see how this could be valid. Plus, in the far past there were not many carbs to be had in Northern Europe, let alone fast acting carbs, so it seems to me blood sugars would be low, not high. The person who posted this on Facebook claimed that ketogenic diets are better for type 1s.
     
  11. sooz

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    I don't believe this was a JDRF project.
     
  12. sooz

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    I also did not like that they called type 1 a metabolic disorder instead of an autoimmune disease. I also had a hard time with it because in my eyes there is a difference in a genetic disorder and a hereditary one.
     
  13. mmgirls

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    I don't beleive it that the elevated blood sugars that they are referring to would be coming from the diet but rather from the body, an biological adaptation. The body under stress would elevate bg thru something like a liver or hormone release that would make the body more insulin resistant and keep a high BG.

    To me it would make more sence that this would be related, not Type 1 autoimmune diabetes, but to Type 2 and others forms of genetic diabetes.
     
  14. sooz

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    I thought the same thing, except ethnically speaking, those descended from the Southern Hemisphere are more likely to develop type 2.
     

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