http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/11/safe-starches-symposium-dr-ron-rosedale/ here is an interesting article/debate that looks at a lot of research and different point of view. They are selling a book, but please not the studies that they have cited. It raises some questions for me. One is, should we try to achieve fasting blood sugar in the 80s when the best health markers and longevity (among non diabetics) matches up with a fasting blood sugar of 95-100 (as long as it is not the result of insulin resistance). I mention non diabetics because it eliminates the problems of hypoglycemic events, so if you eliminate hypoglycemia, and insulin resistance, people live longest with fasting blood sugar of 95-100, not 83 or 74. If the 99 fasting blood sugar is due to insulin resistance which T1Ds are not particularly likely to have, then it is "optimal". Likewise the research shows that an HbA1C of under 5 is negatively correlated to longevity for non-diabetics (again to remove the possibility that it is risk due to hypoglycemia). Even if you have not hypoglycemia, there is no benefit from going under the low 5s, and there is statistically harm from doing so. Another question I have is, should we even try to get kids under 12 any lower than 150 at bedtime and should we even try to keep their peaks under 200, or is that normal and maybe even a part of growth hormone signalling at that age?